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Richard Lakeman

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Keynote Presentations

Lakeman, R. (2005, 18-19 April). Reflections on the use of technology in clinical supervision: The medium and the message [Keynote]. Clinical Supervision Conference: Enhancing Practice, Shearwater Cape Schanck Resort, Mornington Peninsula, Vic

Clinical supervision has established a long pedigree in the helping professions as a tool to assist people hone their practice, sharpen their skills, and endure the traumas associated with working with people in distress. It has provided a means by which the otherwise private exchanges between health professionals and recipients of care can be reflected upon, examined and improved. The seeds for clinical supervision were planted and germinated in another age in which face to face therapy developed well beyond the gaze of the public, and the knowledge of health practitioners and therapists were inaccessible to all but a few initiates. In a little over a decade, as a consequence of the evolution in digital technology, the ground has shifted. In 1964 McLuhan coined the phrase “The medium is the message” and urged us to consider how we are shaped by the tools that we create. This paper reflects on the changes being wrought through evolving media on our notions of personal identity, community, helping professions and practices such as clinical supervision. If clinical supervision is to continue to bear fruit in the coming years then it will need to be a cultivar of the original variety, firmly rooted in concern for the intimate person-professional relationship but adapted to evolving media and shaped by the global context of professional practice.

Journal Articles

Lakeman, R., & Glasgow, C. (2009). Introducing peer-group clinical supervision: An action research project. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 18(3), 204-210.

Clinical supervision (CS) has been found to be beneficial in the role development of nurses and can contribute to increased job satisfaction and reduced burnout. However, implementing CS can be resource intensive, and there are few accounts of it being implemented in developing countries. Ten psychiatric nurses in Trinidad engaged in an action research project over a 5-month period to develop, implement, and undertake an initial evaluation of a model of peer-group CS for use in routine practice. The participants were involved in undertaking peer-group CS and contributing to monthly focus groups to reflect on the practices and further refine the model. This inexpensive form of CS was perceived by participants to have positive effects on the way they viewed and practiced nursing. An outline of the model and initial evaluation is presented, but further research is necessary to establish the sustainability of the model in practice.

Lakeman, R. (1999). Advanced nursing practice: Experience, education and something else. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 14(2), 4-12.

This paper provides some critical reflection on the development of the concept of 'advanced practice'. Whilst defining, credentialing and regulating advanced practice promises rich fruits for nursing, advancing nursing practice will be a consequence only if the right conditions are fostered for the development and provision of nursing expertise in practice. A conscious and collective effort must be made to ensure that nursing expertise of all nurses is recognised and developed. One process which has shown promise in psychiatric and mental health nursing is 'clinical supervision. Evolving nursing leadership roles and more education can only provide a partial solution to the problem of advancing practice.

Lakeman, R. (2000). Advanced nursing practice: experience, education and something else. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 7(1), 89-94.

This paper provides some critical reflection on the development of the concept of 'advanced practice'. Whilst defining, credentialing and regulating advanced practice promises rich fruits for nursing, advancing nursing practice will be a consequence only if the right conditions are fostered for the development and provision of nursing expertise in practice. A conscious and collective effort must be made to ensure that nursing expertise of all nurses is recognised and developed. One process which has shown promise in psychiatric and mental health nursing is 'clinical supervision. Evolving nursing leadership roles and more education can only provide a partial solution to the problem of advancing practice.

Conference Presentations

Lakeman, R. (2005, 24-26 June). Reflecting on the medium and message: Technology, clinical supervision and mental health practice. North Queensland Sub-Branch of the ANZCMHN 7th Annual Symposium. Magnetic Island Resort, Magnetic Island, QLD.
Rogers, C., Davidson, B., Lakeman, R., & The Online-Supervision.net Research Group. (2003, 16-17 May). Internet Communication and Research in Computer Mediated Clinical Supervision - a Methodology Paper presented at the BACP's 9th Annual Research conference: 'Research and Diversity' Holiday Inn, Leicester.

Introduction This research project examines communication processes between clinical supervisors and supervisees who engage in an online supervisory relationship via the Internet. An international team of nine researchers, comprising professionals and academics from a wide range of disciplines, collaborated in developing a long term research study to: explore the experience of computer mediated clinical supervision; establish the extent to which online clinical supervision matches the expectations of supervisees and meet professional standards; describe differences between computer mediated clinical supervision and face-to-face clinical supervision; and evaluate how communication practices are adapted using different computer applications in the process of online clinical supervision.
Method This presentation will illustrate: the development of the diverse research team; development of an ethical research proposal via collaboration through listserv communication; development of the project website (www.online-supervision.net); promotion of the research website; participants registering and indicating their suitability for inclusion or exclusion through website submission form (and quality control/training of participants); development of disclaimers and informed consent content; and technological design for matching supervisees within peer groups or and/or matching supervisees with supervisors.
Results It is anticipated that from the 80+ mental health professionals who have registered an interest in participating as of January 2003, a significant number will go onto become research subjects, along with other recruits, to form small supervision groups and dyads. A five-phase design encompasses an initial phase of data collection to enable the team to match participants, followed by four follow-up phases at three-month intervals of web based questionnaire completion about their experience of online supervision for analysis. Results of phase one of the research project and subsequent matching of participants and their expectations about the online supervisory relationship are presented as the result of the methodological techniques demonstrated.

Lakeman, R. (2003, 9 - 12 September). On-line clinical supervision for mental health professionals: No 8 wire to bridge the world and improve mental health practice. Paper presented at the Earth, Sky & No8 Wire: Australian and New Zealand College of Mental Health Nurses 29th International Conference, Rotorua Convention Centre, Rotorua, NZ.

Clinical supervision has a long pedigree in the mental health professions as a face-to-face relationship purported to assist in the maintenance of standards and to enhance practice through educative and restorative functions. The growth of the Internet and computer mediated communication technologies challenges the traditional notion that the context of clinical supervision need be face-to-face or undertaken by a supervisor intimately acquainted with the local practice setting. Over the last decade some psychiatric nurses and other health professionals have claimed that they have developed sustaining professional and collegial relationships akin to supervision or have actually entered into formal supervisory relationships using Internet technologies.

In 2002 an international research team comprised of a diverse range of disciplines collaborated in developing a long term research study to: explore the experience of computer mediated clinical supervision; establish the extent to which online clinical supervision matches the expectations of supervisees and meets professional standards; describe differences between computer mediated clinical supervision and face-to-face clinical supervision; and evaluate how communication practices are adapted using different computer applications in the process of online clinical supervision. This paper presents snapshots of the journey of this research team, and something of the reality and possibilities of on-line supervision.

 

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